Edited by Denis Cryle and Alan Knight
Number 2, 2001
academic and mentor to several generations
of journalists, Professor Clement John Lloyd
(AO PhD), passed away in Gympie on 31 December
2001, aged 62. Born in Wagga, 1939, Clem
became well known across Australia as a
Labor staffer, journalist, writer and educator.
Clem was an active researcher, and his many
research interests included journalistic
method and the institutional history of
By Phillip Cass
This paper is a preliminary survey of newspaper archives and holdings in the United Arab Emirates. In order to provide an indication of the extent of the holdings available to researchers it looks at commercial, government and university archives in the emirates of Sharjah, Dubai and Abu Dhabi. The paper also presents a brief explanation of the origins of the UAE press and compares the fate of those early newspapers with the effort being made to preserve the second generation of Emirati publications.
By Stephen Lamble
The conventional wisdom
among many computer-assisted reporting (CAR)
educators is that it is an area of journalism
informed by the methodology of United States
journalism professor Phillip Meyer and something
he dubbed "precision journalism"
By Stephen Stockwell and Paul Scott
This paper reviews recent literature on the relationship between the media, race and racism in Australia. It then establishes the case for a simple, comprehensive and accessible guide to fair and cross-cultural reporting firmly based in best media practise: accuracy, balance, ethical awareness and cultural competence. The argument is also made that to ensure wide use of such a guide by media workers, it is necessary to eschew language and attitudes that may be construed as politically correct. This paper was prepared while the authors were writing and producing The All Media Guide to Fair and Cross-Cultural Reporting (The Guide). Over 2,000 printed copies of The Guide have been distributed to media workers at commercial, public and community newsrooms, as well as to media educators and university libraries throughout Australia. It is available online at http://www.gu.edu.au/school/art/AMMSite
Who's been watching the watchers? ~ Australian Political Journalism
By Helen Ester
The first book about the Canberra Press Gallery was published in 1988 - eighty-seven years after the founding of the Commonwealth Parliament and, with it the Federal Parliamentary Press Gallery. The late Clem Lloyd's Parliament and the Press &endash; The Federal Parliamentary Press Gallery maps the evolution of the Gallery, but is described by the author as not 'conceived as a sociological study of political journalists and their milieu' nor as an 'analysis of how a Press Gallery system works'. This paper examines the three books, which followed Lloyd's landmark work, and the context and direction of work in progress towards a contemporary analysis of Australian political reporting.
By Marian Sawer
An important part of the history of cartooning is the way in which it has functioned as a political resource for social movements. Cartooning has served, in both Australia and the United Kingdom, as the major symbolic language of both those promoting and ridiculing women's rights. A striking instance of a century of anti-equality cartooning, dealt with in the first part of this paper, is the appearance and reappearance of 'the man in the apron'&emdash;the victim of women's political equality. In Australia, an interesting extension of this use of cartooning to promote the women's movement has occurred&emdash;cartooning has crossed over from being part of the repertoire of social movements to being part of the repertoire of government agencies charged with equity responsibilities. This paper examines work commissioned from Patrick Cook, Ron Tandberg, Jenny Coopes, and Gaynor Cardew over this period to promote equal opportunity.
Media history's preferred trajectory is that of nation building. This is underlined by the theory put forward in the classic book on the newspapers' role in helping develop a national consciousness, Anderson's Imagined Communities. In Anderson's scenario, empire and nation are incompatible. Australia, however, was not a nation born out of conflict. Paul Kelly, in his recent history of Australia since Federation, suggests a "synthesis of indigenous nationalism and Empire loyalty". However, from 1901 to 1933 this "synthesis" of a loyalty to both the Empire and the Commonwealth of Australia cannot be confirmed for The West Australian. The editorials in The West Australian between 1900 and 1933 &endash; taking significant dates such as the Federation vote, August 1914, November 1918, the opening of Parliament House, Canberra in 1927 and the date of the W.A. secession referendum, April 1933 &endash; show that the paper was most reluctant to discursively construct a nation. It expressed much local and empire loyalty, but rarely provided nationhood with an emotional content.
By Sybil Nolan
In the 19th century, David Syme achieved national fame as the owner and sometime editor of the Melbourne Age. One hundred years later, his great-grandson, Ranald Macdonald, made a name for himself as managing director of David Syme & Co Ltd. Between those stalwarts of The Age came two generations of Symes who are little known today. In keeping with the theme of this conference, Continuity and Change, this paper focuses on The Age in the half-century between David Syme's death and the appointment of Macdonald, on some members of the Syme family who ran the paper in the middle period, and on the paper's commercial difficulties in that time. It is based on research by the author Sybil Nolan for her MA thesis, Themes in the Editorial Identity of The Age Newspaper.
By Dr Michael Meadows
The idea of climbing as a form of recreation in Australia emerged from its European predecessor, mountaineering, as settlers moved across the country and began to look beyond mere survival. This activity was reflected in the early Queensland press and quickly became a significant news topic. Debates over early ascents of Queensland's peaks raged in newspapers like the Queenslander and the Brisbane Courier. Coverage of climbing in SE Queensland reached a high point in the 1930s and essentially disappeared post-war. As a topic, it re-appeared in various niche publications, covered only in the mainstream media when sensationalism demanded. Drawing from new research into the Queensland press, this paper uses numerous examples of press reporting of climbing from 1886 to the new millennium to theorise the cultural role of the print media in 'imagining' climbing as a significant Queensland recreational activity.
By Phoebe Thornley
Whereas in the USA broadcasting was established as commercial enterprise and in the UK and New Zealand it was established as a government run essential service, in Australia, ever since its inception, broadcasting has been considered an essential service and a commercial enterprise which has come under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Australia was mostly too scattered for commercial enterprise to be a viable proposition, and yet people in these areas were demanding this new essential service, broadcasting.
By Patricia Clarke
This is a personal story of where journalism can lead &endash; in this case to the writing of books. Pat Clarke was a journalist for many years, first with the Australian News and Information, the Commonwealth Government's overseas publicity organisation, in Melbourne and then in Canberra, then with the ABC in the press gallery in Canberra.
By Rod Kirkpatrick
The Second World War also had a big impact on the future of newspapers in Australia, accelerating the amalgamation of titles and the concentration of ownership (e.g. viz. Mayer, p.31). In addition, newsprint rationing, better newspaper design and the demand for war news combined to complete the transition of the front-page from advertising to news. What was the full impact on newspapers of this second world conflict? This case study sets out to explore the changes wrought in the Australian provincial daily press through a comparative study of the impact of World War II on three regional daily newspapers from different states. The author finds that the main effects on newspapers caused by World War II resulted from the rationing of newsprint. The newsprint restrictions led to reduced paging, with significantly less space for advertising and so reduced revenues. Another result was that the main news of the day shifted on to the front page and gained an unshakeable hold there.) Newswriting became more concise, and, more hurried, with accuracy suffering. Despite the thinner editions, the demand for war news led to significant increases in circulation. The economic pressures led to the closure of 64 provincial newspapers in five States during the first four years of the war.
By Denis Cryle
The point of departure for the argument of this article is a critical comparison of post-war American and Australian New Journalism. While the American phenomenon is well documented ( Wolfe 1973; Hellman 1981), there has been little real investigation of the New Journalism in post-war Australian media, to the point where one may be forgiven for questioning whether such a local phenomenon existed at all. Only Donald Horne, in Time of Hope (1980), makes any reference to its existence in Australia after 1965 and, even then, in a cursory manner. Consequently, there has been neither a sustained analysis of overseas influence nor of those local traditions which contributed to its emergence. Using a brief case study, this analysis calls into question both the assumptions of its local non-existence and of unmediated American influence on local journalists. Through a case study of the Sunday/Nation Review, it will be argued that Australian media traditions, most notably the iconoclasm of the Sydney Bulletin played a part in sustaining the irreverent satire of the Sunday Review (begun in October 1970) and its immediate successor, the Nation Review (renamed in July 1972 after merging with Nation). Rather than assuming that American forms of New Journalism were preponderant In Australia, might it not be viewed equally as 'home-grown' and generational rather than as merely an imitation of American trends? In this regard, David McKnight (1999) is one Australian media researcher who has discerned a local investigative tradition in the pages of the popular Smith's Weekly, a tradition which predates American post-war influence.
One of the big cunundrums of the moment is whether newspapers reflect their times or how much they can shape them. In this wide ranging address, the former Editor in Chief of the Australian considers links between good reporting and nation building. He reflects on the changes in the news industry since he joined it thirty years ago. The linked document is a draft transcript of his address made on 13.6.2001.
This transcript records the respose of the Media Traditions Panel; Associate Professor Catherine Lumby, Courier Mail Literary Editor, Rosemary Sorenson, Ergon executive, Charles Ware and political commentator, Mungo Macallum. Topocs discussed include political reporting, the role of responsible newspapers and uses for the internet.
Dr Yoshiko Nakano, Hong Kong University
Elliott S. Parker, Central Michigan University, USA
Dr Philip Robertson, Central Queensland University
Jim Tully, University of Canterbury, New Zealand
Dr Stephen Stockwell, Griffith University
Philip Cass, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates
Dr Steve Quinn, Zayed University, United Arab Emirates
Ejournalist is published by ejournalism.au.com, Faculty of Informatics and Communication, Central Queensland University